Differences in the rhetorical styles of candidates in the 2016 US presidential election

first_imgPinterest Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share LinkedIncenter_img Email According to several overall stylistic indicators, candidate Trump used a simple communication style, avoiding complex formulation and vocabulary. The authors analysed lexical density – or how much actual information there was in the words spoken. Trump scored the lowest for lexical density, and he also reused the same phrases more than other candidates.Former governors (Bush and Kasich) tend to use “we” more frequently than “I.” Usually Senators (Cruz, Paul, Clinton, and Sanders) tend to prefer using the pronoun “I.”Donald Trump presents an atypical figure, employing short sentences, a reduced vocabulary, repeating the same arguments with simple words. He is the single candidate to have the pronoun “I” in the second rank (after the article “the”).Hillary Clinton can also be characterized by a large use of the pronoun I. The candidates who stayed longer in the campaign had a clear preference for “I” over the “we.” When considering overall stylistic indicators, Clinton, O’Malley, and Sanders presented a high lexical density value as well as a higher number of long and complex words than the mean.Long sentences were preferred by O’Malley, Clinton, and Sanders. A relatively high lexical density percentage indicates a more complex text, containing more information. Using the transcripts of the TV debates, the lexical density values varied from 36.6% (Trump) to 44.6% (Cruz).The percentage of long or complex words varied from 18.3% (Trump) to 26.4% (Cruz, and Sanders). Senators Cruz and O’Malley had a more sophisticated communication style, employing longer sentences, and a more complex lexicon.An analysis of the top ten most specific terms per candidate reveals interesting specifics about their campaigns. Top terms used by Jeb Bush included “proven,” “status,” and “brother.” Top terms used by Martin O’Malley included “actually” and “Maryland.” Sanders preferred “Wall Street,” “wealth,” “class,” and “billionaire.” Top Clinton words included “comprehensive,” “affordable,” and “try.” Among the top ten specific words used by Trump in the course of his campaign were “I,” “Mexico,” “deal,” and “tremendous.”“As Trump won the primaries and the general election, does that mean that efficient communication must be based on tweet-like rhetoric and this form will dominate the future elections?” asked lead author Jacques Savoy. “Clearly the rhetoric evolution goes towards to short communication messages, but this also implies simplistic analysis and solutions? If the answer is affirmative, I see a real risk of the democracy.”The paper “Analysis of the Style and the Rhetoric of the 2016 US Presidential Primaries” is available at: https://academic.oup.com/dsh/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/llc/fqx007/2993886/Analysis-of-the-style-and-the-rhetoric-of-the-2016?redirectedFrom=fulltext A new paper published in Digital Scholarship in the Humanities reveals and quantifies dramatic differences in the speaking styles of candidates in the 2016 United States presidential election. Lexical analysis indicates that President Donald Trump had a distinct communication style, and it was far more direct than any of the other candidates.The most frequently used thematic words are very similar across politicians, with ‘people’ appearing in the top 4 for 7/9 candidates, and ‘say’ for 5/9. Trump and Hillary Clinton had 3 out of 4 most-used words the same.Researchers here analyzed the transcripts of the TV debates involving Jeb Bush, Hillary Clinton, Ted Cruz, John Kasich, Martin O’Malley, Rand Paul, Marco Rubio, Bernie Sanders, and Donald Trump.last_img read more

Grand Haven volleyball squad defeats Hudsonville and West Ottawa

first_imgLocalSportsJournal.comThe Grand Haven volleyball team defeated Hudsonville and West Ottawa on Thursday night in a tri-match.The Buccaneers cruised past Hudsonville in three straight sets with service scores of 25-12, 25-21, and 25-20 and defeated West Ottawa 3-0 by scores of 25-14, 25-9, and 25-21.Morgan Ross led the Buccaneers with 24 kills and 15 digs while Olivia Boeve added 19 digs, 13 kills and five aces. Katie Cole chipped in with 61 assists and 18 digs for Grand Haven.Grand Haven is now 42-8 overall and 6-2 in conference play. Displayed poorly Franklin Sports MLB Electronic Baseball … ENDS IN Share (124) Shop Now Other Not relevant Inappropriate / Offensive Not relevant ENDS IN Bestseller Not relevant $0.00 Displayed poorly Bestseller Not relevant Other (8187) DEAL OF THE DAY ENDS IN Displayed poorly Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. $0.00 Inappropriate / Offensive Bestseller Displayed poorly $26.86$49.99 Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. (1862) DEAL OF THE DAY × Report a problem This item is… Not relevant × Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Report a problem This item is… Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. ENDS IN $15.29$17.99 Share Report a problem This item is… ENDS IN Not relevant Displayed poorly Other Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Other × Ads by Amazon × (35539) Inappropriate / Offensive DEAL OF THE DAY Other ENDS IN × ENDS IN (1009) DEAL OF THE DAY Bestseller Fox Sports Go Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Report a problem This item is… × Inappropriate / Offensive $59.99 $0.00 Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Bestseller DEAL OF THE DAY Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Special… Not relevant ENDS IN Other Displayed poorly Mail Bestseller Report a problem This item is… Displayed poorly Add Comments (Max 320 characters) $14.99 Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Not relevant 0 NBC Sports (1461) Displayed poorly Inappropriate / Offensive (33138) Shares Bestseller DEAL OF THE DAY Dude Perfect Signature Bow Nerf Sports Bi… Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Other Inappropriate / Offensive FOX Sports: Stream live NFL, College Footbal… Ads by Amazon Bestseller Inappropriate / Offensive Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Report a problem This item is… Report a problem This item is… × × Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Inappropriate / Offensive Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Report a problem This item is… Other A Warrior’s Heart $3.99 The League DEAL OF THE DAY Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. DEAL OF THE DAY (22)last_img read more