However, the treaty cannot be enacted without the support of all member states. Ireland has already voted against the treaty, creating a challenge that the EU’s leaders intend to address again when they meet in October. The difficulties facing the treaty have been compounded in recent days by the refusal of the German and Polish presidents to sign the treaty immediately despite the backing given it by their respective parliaments. In Germany’s case, the reason is a legal challenge. Poland’s President Lech Kaczyński has delayed putting pen to paper until, as he said in an interview on 2 July, “it will no longer be a problem and it will no longer be a problem when we know that all [EU] countries will ratify the treaty”. Seven other EU countries whose parliaments have backed the treaty have yet to complete the formal ratification process. The Cypriot parliament approved the Treaty of Lisbon late on 3 July in a vote that was relatively close by standards set elsewhere in the EU. The vote was carried by 31 votes to 18, with one member of parliament abstaining. The principal opposition coming from the Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL), the island’s largest party and the senior partner in the governing coalition.Cyprus is the twentieth of the EU’s 27 states to have approved the treaty, which is intended to make it easier to manage the EU and adjusts the balance of power between its institutions.