Remembering the women who helped MLK propel the civil rights movement

first_imgDr. Martin Luther King with his wife Correta Scott. (© Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)(NEW YORK) — As the nation celebrates Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on Monday, what would have been his 90th birthday, it is also a time to remember the women who helped King propel the civil rights movement forward.“There would be no King holiday, no civil rights movement, no opportunity to be reflective of how far we’ve come if it wasn’t for scores of women,” said Marcia Chatelain, associate professor of history and African American studies at Georgetown University.“For every name we know, there are scores of names we don’t know because of sexism,” she said. “It’s incredible, the fact that women still continue to participate and make sure that more room is created so that future generations don’t have to confront the biases that women in the past faced.”There were women who boycotted, women who organized carpools and held bake sales and women who strategized with King, all of whom helped chart the course of history.Here are five women to know more about as the nation marks Martin Luther King Jr. Day:Coretta Scott King“I believe Martin was chosen, I believe I was chosen, and I say to the kids, this family was chosen as well,” Coretta Scott King said in her posthumous memoir, My Life, My Love, My Legacy.Scott King, a mother of four, remained by her husband’s side throughout his almost 13 years as the leader of the modern American Civil Rights Movement and up until his assassination in 1968.She would ultimately go on to preserve her husband’s memory through the Martin Luther King Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as lobby for 15 years to help establish Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a federal holiday.Journalist Barbara Reynolds, who traveled with Scott King and wrote her posthumous memoir, said people have to look no further than the Montgomery bus boycott to see Scott King’s influence.Just before the boycott, in 1956, the Kings’ Montgomery house was bombed while Scott King was home alone with their infant daughter. They both survived and Scott King refused to leave Montgomery, even after her father and father-in-law pleaded with her to do so.“She told them that she was married to Martin but she was also married to the movement,” Reynolds recalled. “Dr. King later said that if she had left, he would have left and if he would have left, people say there may have never been a Montgomery bus boycott.”“We have to talk about the courage of the women in this movement,” Reynolds said.Dorothy CottonDorothy Cotton was invited by King to work at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the center of the civil rights movement.Cotton served as the conference’s national director of education for 12 years, helping to train countless activists in non-violent action. She was the only female member of the executive staff and a close confidant of King, according to the Cotton Institute.Cotton is credited with typing King’s “I Have a Dream” speech in a hotel room in Washington. She was also in Memphis, at the same hotel as King, before his assassination in 1968, according to The New York Times.Jo Ann RobinsonJo Ann Robinson was a college professor who is remembered as the real architect of the Montgomery bus boycott, according to Reynolds.King even praised Robinson in his memoir.“Apparently indefatigable, she, perhaps more than any other person, was active on every level of the protest,” he wrote, according to the King Institute at Stanford University.Robinson was the first person in her family to graduate from college and became a teacher in Montgomery, Alabama. There, Robinson was degraded by a bus driver for sitting in the bus’ “whites only” section, according to the National Museum of African American History and Culture.When Robinson later became president of the Women’s Political Council in Montgomery, she made it a priority to desegregate the city’s buses. She became a key player behind the scenes of the Montgomery bus boycott and was arrested and faced acts of violence and intimidation.Robinson was among the boycott’s leaders who eventually had their homes guarded by state police, according to the NMAAHC.Ella BakerElla Baker is credited with organizing and guiding countless leaders through her work at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and as a founder of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.She moved from New York City to Atlanta in the late 1950s to help King run the SCLC. Baker then went on to organize student activists with the SNCC after the Greensboro, North Carolina sit-ins where black college students were denied service at a Woolworth’s lunch counter, according to the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights.“She believed in the power of every person to be a leader,” said Chatelain. “Her principles informed the generation of people whom King was able to mobilize.”Baker was nicknamed “Fundi,” a Swahili word meaning a person who teaches a craft to the next generation, according to the Ella Baker Center.Rosa ParksRosa Parks is famous for starting the Montgomery bus boycott by refusing to give up her seat to a white male passenger on a public bus. But historians say there is much more to the woman known as the “mother of the civil rights movement.”“She is hugely important and hugely misunderstood,” said Jeanne Theoharis, distinguished professor of political science at Brooklyn College of CUNY. “Her stand on the Montgomery bus came out of her long resistance.”Parks was a lifelong activist who served as secretary and youth leader of her local branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, according to the The Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development, which she co-founded in the 1980s to help young people.Years before the bus boycott, Parks helped work on behalf of Recy Taylor, a young black mother and sharecropper who was abducted and gang raped in Alabama by six white men.“She investigated sexual violence against black women, was thinking of the ways black women were ignored by justice system and she organized other black women,” Chatelain said of Parks. “Her activism before the bus boycott was strong.”Parks “created a platform that King could carry on,” according to Chatelain.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. 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Merriam mayoral candidates on the issues: What’s the biggest issue facing the city?

first_imgToday we continue publishing the Merriam mayoral candidates’ responses to our general election questionnaire. Here’s the third and final item:What’s the biggest challenge facing Merriam today, and what will you do over the next four years to address it?Ken Sissom (incumbent)The City of Merriam has a diverse grouping of residential communities. While there are a couple of exceptions, the majority of homes in Merriam were built more than 40 years ago and this fact can create special challenges going forward. As a city, we must do what we can to maintain, or in some cases, improve the integrity of our neighborhoods. As a city we must encourage our residents to maintain their properties and neighborhoods. We want to continue to attract new young families to Merriam because it is a great place to live. But we will not be successful if we allow blight to take hold, which tends to lead to increases in crime.We recently created a Neighborhood Services Manager position in City Hall in order to reach out to offer help and guidance for these communities. This employee acts as liaison between the neighborhoods and City Hall in an effort to solve code problems or nuisances through cooperation, to reduce the need for enforcement. We are searching for solutions to problem area by working alongside with residents. Our challenge will be to make sure that our streets, sidewalk, parks and facilities are highly maintained while building and improving relationships with our neighborhoods so that we can influence the necessary changes that will improve property values and the quality of lives for our residents.Eric JacksonThe biggest challenge facing Merriam today is the continuation of frivolous spending under the theory that our sales tax will somehow bail us out. That approach can only end badly for us. Instead, spend wisely and focus on our basic needs (which many citizens say are not being met) and infrastructure. A related concern is over-use of Tax Increment Financing (TIF). I will work to curtail this practice. I’ve seen estimates that our city is losing 35% of potential income in TIF dollars. The difference is made up by the average wage earner.That was our final question for the Merriam mayoral candidates. Thanks to both for their participation.last_img read more

Mobility Matters: Death of the branch

first_img 1SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr by. Robert McGarveySurvey results make clear exactly how fast branches are becoming obsolete.Three in 10 Americans have not visited a bank or credit union branch in the past six months, according to a survey conducted for Bankrate.com.What is dazzling is that there are not significant generational differences, said Greg McBride, Bankrate’s chief financial analyst. continue reading »last_img read more

Five big wins for Nunes

first_imgANTHONY Nunes swept five of yesterday’s last seven races, including the three feature events, extending his lead to $13.7 million ahead of 18-time defending champion, Wayne DaCosta.Canada-based Dane Nelson, who himself bagged five winners on his first race meet back home, opening the 11-race card with MSMYRTLERICHIEGIRL, proved to be the leading trainer’s magic charm, handing him his first win, ROYAL APPROACH, via the stewards’ room, after 9-1 outsider EROY’s disqualification in the second event.DaCosta, whose bid for a three-timer on the 11-race card was derailed by American-bred UNCLE POLLY’s flop in the event awarded to ROYAL APPROACH, predictably landed the third and sixth races with KING ARTHUR and BIG BLACK NATION, respectively, but had no answer to Nunes’ four-race flurry – LATAPY, PRINCE CHARLES, PRINCESS AVA and LEGALITY.Apprentice Reyan Lewis helped himself to a three-timer, starting with BELTANE in the fourth, before booting home the first two of Nunes’ four consecutive winners, LATAPY and PRINCE CHARLES, in the seventh and eighth events, respectively.Nelson, who had his second win astride CLASSY VISHALA in the fifth, topped off five-­timers for himself and Nunes with stirring stretch finishes aboard PRINCESS AVA and LEGALITY in the ninth and 10th races, respectively.Nunes’ five wins added $2.6m worth of breathing room to his $11.1m lead ahead of DaCosta, who is set to unleash his fury in this afternoon’s Diamond Mile in which he has the country’s two best horses, STRANGER DANGER and SHE’S A MANEATER, aiming at approximately $10m in stakes.Nunes, who is aiming to win his first trainers’ title, suffered a Diamond Mile blow with the recent death of three-time runner-up, BIGDADDYKOOL. His main runner in the event is Superstakes ­runner-up, TOONA CILIATA. [email protected]last_img read more

Třinec has reduced the budget by 20 percent, he goes to…

first_imgPhoto: Petr Rubal, hcocelari.czToday, the steelmakers presented their visions and plans for the upcoming year of the Tipsport extra league, which they have been playing continuously since the 1995/96 season, on the terrace of the Radegastovna Pod padákem in Třinec. The hockey players of Třinec played at the top again last season, and they may be very sorry that the effort to win the championship title was cut short by the coronavirus pandemic. This will probably affect the new year as well. “Optimism prevails on our part, although epidemiologists warn us that the most difficult period is yet to come. But I hope that life will return to some normal, “says club president Ján Moder.Photo: Petr Rubal, hcocelari.czThey also went under Javor with their salaries. “We set the austerity regime a long time ago, it was at the time when we started the steel road project. Sports manager Jan Peterek aims to make the season for as little money as possible and give the spectators as much music as possible. The economic situation is not easy, but I believe that our situation will continue to be stable, “he reveals to the club website Moder.“Compared to last season, we have a twenty percent lower budget for the AC. Player conditions have gone down, lots of clubs will save on the budget. On the other hand, it is difficult to estimate income. Nobody knows what awaits us. There are a lot of questions that will decide on the economic result of this year, “adds Jan Peterek, Sports Director of Steelworks, to the financial side.Under the current measures, the capacity of the Werk Arena is 3,200 spectators, but Peterek hopes that more fans could get to hockey in Třinec in time. “I believe we will soon turn white at the traffic light. And that the restrictions will soon not apply to the whole republic, but will be divided on the basis of specific regions. I firmly hope that we will see a full stadium as soon as possible. ”The team is changing for a generation, fans will no longer see a few experienced fighters. Jiří Polanský and Lukáš Krajíček ended their careers, Martin Adamský moved to Havířov and Vladimír Roth said goodbye. “They are players that we and people will miss. I believe that we have excellent players here not only in hockey, but also in character. It’s beautiful when little boys find new patterns. ”“We want to play offensive hockey that people will love to go to.”“Together with Honza Peterek, we were looking for a player we could rely on in the future. I believe that we will play for the highest places. Our players are ready for it and will go to extra-league fights with gusto. Hockey is a collective sport and we rely on it. It was with a collective approach that we won the championship title a year and a half ago, “recalls head coach Václav Varaďa.His team, strengthened by Filip Zadin, Lukáš Jašek and Josef Kořenář, already showed its qualities in the Generali Česká Cup, which it dominated. “I am glad that we were able to complete the entire training without the virus and quarantine. The players played a very high quality match, which took us to the top of the podium. We were pleased to play handsome hockey. I believe that we will follow up on the matches in the league. ”Photo: Tomáš Čekal“For the first time, our training had a charge, and I watched it in parallel with the Stanley Cup broadcasts in Toronto and Edmonton. I quite liked the game performance of the teams in the extra league. It’s such a small Stanley Cup. It was a mini play off, which we won again, “looks forward to the vice-president of the Třinec club, Jan Czudek. “We want to play offensive hockey, which people will like to go to,” he adds.The steelworkers are going to the new year again with three variants of jerseys, but also a new captain. He became an experienced striker Petr Vrána, currently the team’s oldest player. “I appreciate the boys’ choices. We work together in a team, there is a good group of people. Céčko is just a letter on the jersey, we have one team in the locker room and we have more leaders. I believe that we will continue to provide quality performances, “he wishes.Current list of HC Oceláři TřinecGoalkeepers:Jakub Štěpánek, Josef Kořenář, Nick Malík, Tomáš Suchánek.Defenders:Marian Adamek, Milan Doudera, Guntis Galvins, Martin Gernat, Filip Haman, Ondrej Hrachovsky, Patrik Husak, Jan Jaromersky, Tomas Kundratek, David Musil, Jan Zahradnicek.Attackers:Vladimír Dravecký, Patrik Hrehorčák, Erik Hrňa, Aron Chmielewski, Lukáš Jašek, David Kofroň, Michal Kovařčík, Ondřej Kovařčík, Daniel Kurovský, Tomáš Marcinko, Adam Raška, Miloš Roman, Martin Růžička, Matěj Stránský, Radek Veselý, Petr Vrána, Filip Zadina .Changes in the staffArrivals:Jan Jaroměřský (Olomouc), Patrik Husák (Poruba), Daniel Kurovský (Vítkovice), Radek Veselý (Havířov), Nick Malík (Soo Greyhounds, OHL), Miloš Roman (Vancouver Giants, WHL), Filip Zadina (Detroit, NHL), Lukáš Jašek (Utica, AHL), Josef Kořenář (San Jose, AHL), Adam Raška (Rimouski, QMJHL).Excrement:Jan Hladonik (Karlovy Vary), Petr Kváča (Liberec), Vladimír Roth (unknown), Roman Szturc (Havířov), Lukáš Krajíček (end of career), Štěpán Novotný (career interruption), Jakub Matyáš (Prostějov), Martin Adamský (Havířov) , Jiří Polanský (end of career).Results of preparatory matchesTrinec 7:2 PřerovVítkovice 3:4 TrinecTrinec 5:2 ZlínZlín 4:0 TrinecPřerov 3:2pp TrinecTrinec 6:2 VítkoviceHradec 1:7 TrinecTrinec 2:3 HradecComet 5:4pp TrinecTrinec 3:0 PardubicePardubice 3:3 TrinecPhoto: Karel Švec, Czech hockey Share on Facebook Share on Twitterlast_img read more